The Scandinavian peninsula, Finland and Estonia show sophisticated iron production from c. Metalworking and Ananyino culture pottery co-occur to some extent.
In Central Europe, the Iron Age is generally divided in the early Iron Age Hallstatt culture (Ha C and D, 800–450) and the late Iron Age La Tène culture (beginning in 450 BC).
The transition from bronze to iron in Central Europe is exemplified in the great cemetery, discovered in 1846, of Hallstatt, near Gmunden, where the forms of the implements and weapons of the later part of the Bronze Age are imitated in iron.
The Iron Age north of about the Rhine, beyond the Celts and then the Romans, is divided into two eras: the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age.
In Scandinavia, further periods followed up to 1100: the Migration Period, the Vendel Period and the Viking Age.
The fragmentary Epic Cycles, a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, were a distillation in literary form of an oral tradition developed during the Greek Dark Age.
The traditional material from which the literary epics were drawn treats the Mycenaean Bronze Age culture from the perspective of Iron Age and later Greece.These are no longer cast but hammered into shape, and decoration is elaborate curvilinear rather than simple rectilinear; the forms and character of the ornamentation of the northern European weapons resembles in some respects Roman arms, while in other respects they are peculiar and evidently representative of northern art.The dead were buried in an extended position, whereas in the preceding Bronze Age cremation had been the rule.In Italy, the Iron Age was probably introduced by the Villanovan culture, which succeeded the Bronze Age Proto-Villanovan culture in the territory of Tuscany and northern Latium and spread in parts of Romagna, Campania and Fermo in the Marche The burial characteristics relate the Villanovan culture to the Central European Urnfield culture (c.1300–750 BC), and 'Celtic' Hallstatt culture (which succeeded the Urnfield culture).Cremated remains were housed in double-cone shaped urns and buried.