.s, the earliest possible aate that can be assignea to the composition of the Libraiy. It is to be noted, however, that this passage is not found in our manuscripts of Apo Uodorus but has been conjecturally restored to his text from the Scholia on Lycophron of Tzetzes. As Apollodorus ignored his contemporaries, so y apparently was he ignored by them and by posterity / for many generations. 95); and the same term is used by Silius Italicus (Picnic, xiv. Thus, so far as the external evidence goes, our author may have written at any time between the middle of the first century b.c. When we turn to the in- ternal evidence furnished by his language, which is the only remaining test open to us, we shall be disposed to place his book much nearer to the earlier than to the later of these dates. INTRODUCTION for this Castor is supposed to be a contemporary of Scero ana t Ue author of a ^J^^^^^^^ h m it follows that the Library is not a work of the At^'enian grammarian Apo Uoaorus, since t cannot hive been composea earlier than about the of the first cent L, B. But there seems to be no gooa-grouna for aisputing either the date ^f the Lonicler or the genuineness ^^ -/ ^f;/ J" ference to him; hence we may take it as tanly ertain that the miaaie of the first century nx. On the other / hand it would be intelligible enough if he wrote in/ some quiet corner of the Greek world at a time \ when Rome was still a purely Italian power, when I rumours of her wars had hardly begun to trickle v across the Adriatic, and when Roman sails had not yet shown themselves in the Aegean. INTRODUCTION name.^ Our author is named and quoted by scholiasts on Homer,^ Sophocles/ and Euripides.* Further, many passages of his work have been interpolated, though without the mention of their author's name, in the collection of proverbs which Zenobius composed in the time of Hadrian.^ But as we do not know when the scholiasts and the interpolator lived, their quotations furnish us with no clue for dating the Library. 7crat7; Arjpo) Evayopr] ^a/xd Orj, Evfio Xirr) 'lovr] ^vvafievq K77Tft) Aifivdipe La. :^Ld)vr] yevvf]ffeiv Heyne, comparing Hesiod, Theog.
Thus he treated of the theogony, of the war of the gods and the giants, of Prometheus, of Hercules, of the Argive and the Cretan sagas, of the voyage of the Argo, and of the tribal or family legends of Arcadia, Laconia, and Attica ; and like Apollodorus he seems to have paid great attention to genealogies.^ Apollodorus often cites his opinion, and we cannot doubt that he owed much to the writings of his * See W. In other words, Apollodorus conducts ^us from the purely mythical ages, which lie far \beyond the reach of human memory, down to the borderland of history. ■ For the fragments of Aciisilaus and Asclepiades, see Fragmenta Hiatoricorum Oraecorum, ed.
The ground which he covered, and the method which he pursued in cultivating it, coincided to a large extent with those of our author. ^ Compiled faithfully, if uncritically, from the best literary sources open to him, the Library of Apollo- dorus presents us with a history of the world, as it was conceived by the Greeks, from the dark beginning down to a time when the mists of fable began to lift and to disclose the real actors on the scene.
In what follows I accept in the main his arguments and conclusions. Thus he describes how Her- cules traversed Italy with the cattle of Geryon from Liguria in the north to Rhegium in the south, and how from Rhegium he crossed the straits to Sicily.^ Yet in this narrative he does not so much as mention Rome and Latium, far less tell the story of the hero's famous adventures in the eternal city.
Robert in his learned and able dissertation De Apo Uodori Bibliotheca (Berlin, 1873). For all he says about them, he might have Uvea before Romulus ana Remus haa built the future capital of the woria on the Seven Hills. wa, a work Xp..«i 4.™«- XI INTRODUCTION And his silence on this head is all the more remarkable because the course of his work would naturally have led him more than once to touch on Roman legends.
INTRODUCTION tradition until they were embalmed in Greek liter- ature.
Hesiod says that Zeus acted on the advice or warning of Earth and Sky, The Scholiast on Hesiod, quoted by Goettling and Paley in their commentaries, saj's that Metis had the power of turning herself into any shape she pleased. According to the usual account, followed by the vase-painters, it was Hephaestus who cleft the head of Zeus with an axe and so delivered Athena.
It is unfortunate that the writings of Pherecydes have perished, for, if we may judge of them by the few fragments which survive, they appear to have been a treasure-house of Greek mythical and legendary lore, set forth with that air of simplicity and sincerity which charm us in Herodotus. C., who com- posed a treatise on the themes of Greek tragedies. See TAe Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part XIII, edited b}' B.
However, Apollodorus allowed himfaelf occasionally to depart from the authority of Apollonius, for example, in regard to the death of Apsyrtus. and composed a long prose work on Greek myth and legend, which more than any other would seem to have served as the model and foundation for the Library of Apollodorus. C., and Asclepiades of Tragilus, a pupil of Isocrates, in the fourth century B. Another passage of Acusilaus, with which Apollodorus would seem to have been acquainted, has lately been discovered in an Egyptian papyrus.
For the treatise On the Gods appears, from the surviving fragments and references, to have differed entirely in scope and method from the existing Library. But while he mentions the coming of Philoctetes to Campania,^ and apparently recounted in some detail his wars and settlement in Southern Italy,2 he does not refer to the arrival of Aeneas in Latium, though he had told the familiar stories, so dear to Roman antiquaries, of that hero's birth from Aphrodite * and his escape from Troy with his father Anchises on his back.^ From this remarkable silence we can hardly draw any other inference than that the writer was either unaware of the existence of Rome or deliberately resolved to ignore it.