By seeing which drill bit the pipe stems fits on top of, you can determine the diameter of the pipe stem. Better access to tobacco meant a person could smoke more tobacco, meaning bigger bowls to hold the extra tobacco. A longer stem would have kept the bowl (and heat) further from the mouth.
is that bore diameters decreased to compensate for an increase in the length of the stems. Another theory among archeologists for the decrease in bore diameters is that tobacco became more refined, meaning the pieces of tobacco were smaller. Or are there other reasons that could account for the decrease in bore diameter? Is it because people break them off because the stem gets dirty?
These measures can refine TPQs by removing ceramic outliers that may have been introduced through excavation error or disturbance.
Dates allow archeologists to connect a site/deposit to a specific time period, allowing us a better understanding of the past.
Also provided are two other TPQ measures, TPQ95 and TPQ90.
TPQ95 estimates the date after which the deposit was formed based on the 95th percentile (or 90th for TPQ90) of the beginning manufacturing dates for the sherds from that layer.
Instead, archeologists have to be a bit more creative.
Pipes were very common in colonial times following the introduction of tobacco to England in the late 16th century.
For example, if you had a handful of coins from a particular layer, dated 1750, 1775, 1800, and 1802, the TPQ (or ) is 1802.
In other words, the layer could not have formed until after that 1802 coin was created.
Historical archaeologists date their sites using a variety of methods, each with its strengths and weaknesses.