The advent of writing in Elam was paralleled to Sumer, and the Elamite cuneiform was developed since the third millennium BC.
The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of Median ruler Astyages, and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians.
Later conquests under Cyrus and his successors expanded the empire to include Lydia, Babylon, Egypt, parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper, as well as the lands to the west of the Indus and Oxus rivers.
From the late 10th to the late seventh century BC, the Iranian peoples, together with the "pre-Iranian" kingdoms, fell under the domination of the Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.
Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Iranian Scythians and Cimmerians, and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire.
After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols.
The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, Popular unrest culminated in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature.According to international observers, the current Iranian regime (led by Ali Khamenei since 1989) is oppressive, with human rights abuses commonplace.Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country.The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5 1, was created on July 14, 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium.Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC.It is a major regional and middle power, – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.