The Bishop also allowed the furriers to establish a guild in 1226.Eventually about 15 guilds were established in the 13th century.
Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, and joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501.
The city has been a commercial hub and important cultural centre since the Renaissance, and has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in the 20th century.
The guilds, asserting that the Jews were responsible—several had been tortured and confessed—demanded they be executed, which the Council did in January 1349, except for a few who escaped to Alsace. They were shackled inside a wooden barn on an island in the Rhine, which was set afire.
The few survivors - young orphans - were forcibly converted to Christianity.
In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a castra (castle) was built on the site of the Celtic oppidum.
The city of Basel eventually grew around the castle.
In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of Basel-Gasfabrik, to the northwest of the Old City, likely identical with the town of Arialbinnum mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana.
The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an oppidum on the site of Basel Minster, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul.
They increased the town's, and hence the bishop's, reputation, influence, and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market.