Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials.
Although each individual nucleotide repeating unit is very small, DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions to hundreds of millions of nucleotides.
For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix.
Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres).
The pair of chains has a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometre).
A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.
The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel.Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.A polymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide.The sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, which is a pentose (five-carbon) sugar.Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases — cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) or thymine (T) — a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group.